Vatican Council I…

…judges Francis’ idea on union in the Catholic Church

  • The abandonment and rejection of the Christian religion has plunged many into the abyss of pantheism, materialism and atheism

Thereupon there came into being and spread far and wide throughout the world that doctrine of rationalism or naturalism, — utterly opposed to the Christian – religion, since this is of supernatural origin, — which spares no effort to bring it about that Christ, who alone is our Lord and Savior, is shut out from the minds of people and the moral life of nations. Thus they would establish what they call the rule of simple reason or nature. The abandonment and rejection of the Christian religion, and the denial of God and his Christ, has plunged the minds of many into the abyss of pantheism, materialism and atheism, and the consequence is that they strive to destroy rational nature itself, to deny any criterion of what is right and just, and to overthrow the very foundations of human society. With this impiety spreading in every direction, it has come about, alas, that many even among the children of the Catholic Church have strayed from the path of genuine piety, and as the truth was gradually diluted in them, their Catholic sensibility was weakened. (Vatican Council I. Dogmatic constitution Dei Filius, Session 3, no. 7–8, April 24, 1870)

…judges Francis’ idea on the role of women in the Church

  • In the Church there is the divinely instituted power, by which it pertains to some to teach and govern, while others are without it

The Church of Christ is not a community of equals, as if in which all the faithful have the same rights, but it is truly a society of unequals; and this is not only because among the faithful some are clerics and others are lay, but because, above all, in the Church there is the divinely instituted power, by which it pertains to some to sanctify, teach and govern, while others are without it. (Vatican Council I. First draft of the Constitution De Ecclesia Christi, Ch. X: De Ecclesiae Potestate – Mansi, vol. 51)

…judges Francis’ idea on conversion of the papacy

  • That which Christ instituted must of necessity remain for ever

That which our lord Jesus Christ, the prince of shepherds and great shepherd of the sheep, established in the blessed apostle Peter, for the continual salvation and permanent benefit of the church, must of necessity remain for ever, by Christ’s authority, in the church which, founded as it is upon a rock, will stand firm until the end of time. For no one can be in doubt, indeed it was known in every age that the holy and most blessed Peter, prince and head of the apostles, the pillar of faith and the foundation of the catholic church, received the keys of the kingdom from our lord Jesus Christ, the saviour and redeemer of the human race, and that to this day and for ever he lives and presides and exercises judgment in his successors the bishops of the holy Roman see, which he founded and consecrated with his blood. Therefore whoever succeeds to the chair of Peter obtains by the institution of Christ himself, the primacy of Peter over the whole church. So what the truth has ordained stands firm, and blessed Peter perseveres in the rock-like strength he was granted, and does not abandon that guidance of the church which he once received. For this reason it has always been necessary for every church—that is to say the faithful throughout the world— to be in agreement with the Roman church because of its more effective leadership. In consequence of being joined, as members to head, with that see, from which the rights of sacred communion flow to all, they will grow together into the structure of a single body. (Vatican Council I. Dogmatic constitution Pastor aeternus, Session IV, Ch. 2, July 18, 1870)

  • Those who misrepresent the government established by Christ the Lord and deny Peter oppose the manifest teaching of the Sacred Scriptures

We teach and declare that, according to the gospel evidence, a primacy of jurisdiction over the whole church of God was immediately and directly promised to the blessed apostle Peter and conferred on him by Christ the Lord. It was to Simon alone, to whom he had already said You shall be called Cephas, that the Lord, after his confession, You are the Christ, the son of the living God, spoke these words: Blessed are you, Simon Bar-Jona. For flesh and blood has not revealed this to you, but my Father who is in heaven. And I tell you, you are Peter, and on this rock I will build my church, and the gates of the underworld shall not prevail against it. I will give you the keys of the kingdom of heaven, and whatever you bind on earth shall be bound in heaven, and whatever you loose on earth shall be loosed in heaven. And it was to Peter alone that Jesus, after his resurrection, confided the jurisdiction of supreme pastor and ruler of his whole fold, saying: Feed my lambs, feed my sheep. To this absolutely manifest teaching of the sacred scriptures, as it has always been understood by the catholic church, are clearly opposed the distorted opinions of those who misrepresent the form of government which Christ the lord established in his church and deny that Peter, in preference to the rest of the apostles, taken singly or collectively, was endowed by Christ with a true and proper primacy of jurisdiction. The same may be said of those who assert that this primacy was not conferred immediately and directly on blessed Peter himself, but rather on the church, and that it was through the church that it was transmitted to him in his capacity as her minister. (Vatican Council I. Dogmatic constitution Pastor aeternus, Session IV, Ch. 1, July 18, 1870)

  • No one may lawfully pass judgment upon the sentence of the Apostolic See

Since the Roman Pontiff, by the divine right of the apostolic primacy, governs the whole Church, we likewise teach and declare that he is the supreme judge of the faithful, and that in all cases which fall under ecclesiastical jurisdiction recourse may be had to his judgment. The sentence of the Apostolic See (than which there is no higher authority) is not subject to revision by anyone, nor may anyone lawfully pass judgment thereupon. (Vatican Council I. Dogmatic constitution Pastor aeternus, Session IV, Ch. 3, July 18, 1870)

  • The mission to guard and faithfully expound the Revelation or deposit of faith transmitted by the Apostles

For the Holy Spirit was promised to the successors of Peter not so that they might, by his revelation, make known some new doctrine, but that, by his assistance, they might religiously guard and faithfully expound the revelation or deposit of faith transmitted by the apostles. […] This gift of truth and never-failing faith was therefore divinely conferred on Peter and his successors in this See so that they might discharge their exalted office for the salvation of all, and so that the whole flock of Christ might be kept away by them from the poisonous food of error and be nourished with the sustenance of heavenly doctrine. (Vatican Council I. Dogmatic constitution Pastor aeternus, Session IV, Ch. 4, July 18, 1870)

  • The Roman Pontiff possesses that infallibility which the divine Redeemer willed his Church to enjoy

Therefore, faithfully adhering to the tradition received from the beginning of the Christian faith, to the glory of God our savior, for the exaltation of the Catholic religion and for the salvation of the Christian people, with the approval of the Sacred Council, we teach and define as a divinely revealed dogma that when the Roman Pontiff speaks Ex Cathedra, that is, when, in the exercise of his office as shepherd and teacher of all Christians, in virtue of his supreme apostolic authority, he defines a doctrine concerning faith or morals to be held by the whole Church, he possesses, by the divine assistance promised to him in blessed Peter, that infallibility which the divine Redeemer willed his Church to enjoy in defining doctrine concerning faith or morals. Therefore, such definitions of the Roman Pontiff are of themselves, and not by the consent of the Church, irreformable. So then, should anyone, which God forbid, have the temerity to reject this definition of ours: let him be anathema. (Vatican Council I. Dogmatic constitution Pastor aeternus, Session IV, Ch. 4, July 18, 1870)

  • The gates of hell want to overthrow the Church with great hatred against its divinely established foundation

[The institution and foundation of the Church]. ‘The eternal Pastor and Bishop of our souls’ (1Pet 2:25), in order to render the saving work of redemption perennial, willed to build a holy Church, in which, as in the house of the living God, all the faithful might be contained by the bond of one faith and charity. […] But, that the episcopacy itself might be one and undivided, and that the entire multitude of the faithful through priests closely connected with one another might be preserved in the unity of faith and communion, placing the blessed Peter over the other apostles He established in him the perpetual principle and visible foundation of both unities, upon whose strength the eternal temple might be erected, and the sublimity of the Church to be raised to heaven might rise in the firmness of this faith. And, since the gates of hell, to overthrow the Church, if this were possible, arise from all sides with ever greater hatred against its divinely established foundation, We judge it to be necessary for the protection, safety, and increase of the Catholic flock, with the approbation of the Council, to set forth the doctrine on the institution, perpetuity, and nature of the Sacred Apostolic Primacy, in which the strength and solidarity of the whole Church consist, to be believed and held by all the faithful, according to the ancient and continual faith of the universal Church, and to proscribe and condemn the contrary errors, so pernicious to the Lord’s flock. (Denzinger-Hünermann 3050-3052. Vatican Council I, Dogmatic constitution I on the Church of Christ, July 18, 1870)

  • If anyone says that the Roman pontiff does not have the supreme power of jurisdiction let him be anathema

So, then, if anyone says that the Roman pontiff has merely an office of supervision and guidance, and not the full and supreme power of jurisdiction over the whole church, and this not only in matters of faith and morals, but also in those which concern the discipline and government of the church dispersed throughout the whole world; or that he has only the principal part, but not the absolute fullness, of this supreme power; or that this power of his is not ordinary and immediate both over all and each of the churches and over all and each of the pastors and faithful: let him be anathema. (Vatican Council I. Dogmatic constitution Pastor aeternus, Session IV, Ch. 3, July 18, 1870)

  • So that the believers be held together in the unity of the faith, Christ set Peter over the rest

In order, then, that the Episcopal office should be one and undivided and that, by the union of the clergy, the whole multitude of believers should be held together in the unity of faith and communion, he set blessed Peter over the rest of the apostles and instituted in him the permanent principle of both unities and their visible foundation. Upon the strength of this foundation was to be built the eternal temple, and the church whose topmost part reaches heaven was to rise upon the firmness of this foundation. (Vatican Council I. Pastor aeterus, Session IV, July 18, 1870)

  • Both clergy and faithful are bound to submit to the power of the Roman Pontiff

Wherefore we teach and declare that, by divine ordinance, the Roman Church possesses a pre-eminence of ordinary power over every other Church, and that this jurisdictional power of the Roman Pontiff is both Episcopal and immediate. Both clergy and faithful, of whatever rite and dignity, both singly and collectively, are bound to submit to this power by the duty of hierarchical subordination and true obedience, and this not only in matters concerning faith and morals, but also in those which regard the discipline and government of the Church throughout the world. In this way, by unity with the Roman Pontiff in communion and in profession of the same faith, the Church of Christ becomes one flock under one Supreme Shepherd (cf. Jn 10:16). This is the teaching of the Catholic truth, and no one can depart from it without endangering his faith and salvation. (Vatican Council I. Dogmatic constitution Pastor aeternus, Session IV, Ch. 3, July 18, 1870)

…judges Francis’ idea on Christians and Muslims sharing the same points

  • The Scriptures have come to us from the Apostles…

Furthermore, this supernatural revelation, according to the faith of the universal Church, as declared by the holy synod of Trent, is contained “in the written books and in the unwritten traditions which have been received by the apostles from the mouth of Christ Himself; or, through the inspiration of the Holy Spirit have been handed down by the apostles themselves, and have thus come to us” [Council of Trent, see n. 783]. And, indeed, these books of the Old and New Testament, whole with all their parts, just as they were enumerated in the decree of the same Council, are contained in the older Vulgate Latin edition, and are to be accepted as sacred and canonical. But the Church holds these books as sacred and canonical, not because, having been put together by human industry alone, they were then approved by its authority; nor because they contain revelation without error; but because, having been written by the inspiration of the Holy Spirit, they have God as their author and, as such, they have been handed down to the Church itself (can. 4). (Denzinger-Hünermann 3006. Vatican Council I, Session III, Dogmatic constitution Dei Filius, Ch. 2, April 24, 1870)

…judges Francis’ idea on obtaining spiritual fruits in other religions

  • There is no equality between Catholics and those who follow a false religion

For, the most benign God both excites the erring by His grace and aids them so that they can ‘come to a knowledge of the truth’ (1Tim 2:4), and also confirms in His grace those whom ‘He has called out of darkness into his marvelous light’ (1Pet 2:9), so that they may persevere in this same light, not deserting if He be not deserted. Wherefore, not at all equal is the condition of those, who, through the heavenly gift of faith, have adhered to the Catholic truth, and of those, who, led by human opinions, follow a false religion. (Denzinger-Hünermann 3014. Vatican Council I, Dogmatic constitution Dei Filius, Ch. 3, April 24, 1870)

…judges Francis’ idea on Ecumenical dialogue

  • Together with the apostolic duty of teaching, the Church has the right and duty of proscribing ‘knowledge falsely so called’

Further, the Church which, together with the apostolic duty of teaching, has received the command to guard the deposit of faith, has also, from divine Providence, the right and duty of proscribing ‘knowledge falsely so called’ (1Tm 6:20), ‘lest anyone be cheated by philosophy and vain deceit’ (cf. Col 2,8). (Denzinger-Hünermann 3018. Vatican Council I, Ecumenical XX, Session III, Dogmatic constitution concerning the Catholic Faith, April 24, 1870)

…judges Francis’ idea on Grace

  • The See of Saint Peter always remains unblemished by error to protect the flock of Christ

This see of Saint Peter always remains unblemished by any error, in accordance with the divine promise of our Lord and Saviour to the prince of his disciples: I have prayed for you that your faith may not fail; and when you have turned again, strengthen your brethren (Lk 22:32). This gift of truth and never-failing faith was therefore divinely conferred on Peter and his successors in this see so that they might discharge their exalted office for the salvation of all, and so that the whole flock of Christ might be kept away by them from the poisonous food of error and be nourished with the sustenance of heavenly doctrine. (Vatican Council I. Session IV, Apostolic constitution Pastor aeternus, Ch. 4, no. 6-7, July 18,1870)

…judges Francis’ idea on Faith

  • Divine revelation is credible by external signs − internal experience alone is insufficient

If anyone shall have said that divine revelation cannot be made credible by external signs, and for this reason men ought to be moved to faith by the internal experience alone of each one, or by private inspiration: let him be anathema. (Denzinger-Hünermann 3033. Vatican Council I, Dogmatic constitution Dei Filius, no. 3)

…judges Francis’ idea that spiritual direction is a charism of the laity

  • In the Church some teach and govern; and others do not

The Church of Christ is not a community of equals, as if in which all the faithful have the same rights, but it is truly a society of unequals; and this is not only because among the faithful some are clerics and others are lay, but because, above all, in the Church there is the divinely instituted power, by which it pertains to some to sanctify, teach and govern, while others are without it. (Vatican Council I. First draft of the Constitution De Ecclesia Christi, Ch. X: De Ecclesiae PotestateMansi, vol. 51)

…judges Francis’ idea that Christians and Muslims share the same faith

  • Faith is a supernatural virtue by which one believes that the things revealed by God are true

[The definition of faith] Since man is wholly dependent on God as his Creator and Lord, and since created reason is completely subject to uncreated truth, we are bound by faith to give full obedience of intellect and will to God who reveals [can. 1]. But the Catholic Church professes that this faith, which ‘is the beginning of human salvation’ [cf. no. 801], is a supernatural virtue by which we, with the aid and inspiration of the grace of God, believe that the things revealed by Him are true, not because the intrinsic truth of the revealed things has been perceived by the natural light of reason, but because of the authority of God Himself who reveals them, who can neither deceive nor be deceived [can. 2]. For, ‘faith is,’ as the Apostle testifies, ‘the substance of things to be hoped for, the evidence of things that appear not’ (Heb 11:1). (Denzinger-Hünermann 3008. Vatican Council I, Session III, Dogmatic constitution concerning the Catholic Faith, April 24, 1870)

  • God is known through the created universe

[Against those denying natural theology]. If anyone shall have said that the one true God, our Creator and our Lord, cannot be known with certitude by those things which have been made, by the natural light of human reason: let him be anathema. (Denzinger-Hünermann 3026. Vatican Council I, Session III, Dogmatic constitution concerning the Catholic Faith, April 24, 1870)

…judges Francis’ idea on good-will replacing theological investigation

  • There must never be recession from understanding of the sacred dogmas under the specious name of a deeper understanding

[The true progress of knowledge, both natural and revealed] .For, the doctrine of faith which God revealed has not been handed down as a philosophic invention to the human mind to be perfected, but has been entrusted as a divine deposit to the Spouse of Christ, to be faithfully guarded and infallibly interpreted. Hence, also, that understanding of its sacred dogmas must be perpetually retained, which Holy Mother Church has once declared; and there must never be recession from that meaning under the specious name of a deeper understanding [can. 3]. ‘Therefore […] let the understanding, the knowledge, and wisdom of individuals as of all, of one man as of the whole Church, grow and progress strongly with the passage of the ages and the centuries; but let it be solely in its own genus, namely in the same dogma, with the same sense and the same understanding’. (Denzinger-Hünermann 3020. Vatican Council I, Constitution Dei Filius, Ch. 4, Session III, April 24, 1870)

…judges Francis’ idea that catholics and muslims adore the same God

  • The human reply to God who reveals Himself can only be full obedience of the intellect and the will in faith

Since man is wholly dependent on God as his Creator and Lord, and since created reason is completely subject to uncreated truth, we are bound by faith to give full obedience of intellect and will to God who reveals [can. 1]. But the Catholic Church professes that this faith, which ‘is the beginning of human salvation’ [cf. n. 801], is a supernatural virtue by which we, with the aid and inspiration of the grace of God, believe that the things revealed by Him are true, not because the intrinsic truth of the revealed things has been perceived by the natural light of reason, but because of the authority of God Himself who reveals them, who can neither deceive nor be deceived [can. 2]. (Denzinger-Hünermann 3008. Vatican Council I, Session III, Dogmatic Constitution concerning the Catholic Faith, April 23, 1870)

…judges Francis’ idea on anticlericalism

  • In the Church, some members are subordinate to others

The Church of Christ is not a community of equals, as if in which all the faithful have the same rights, but it is truly a society of inequals; and this is not only because among the faithful some are clerics and others are lay, but because, above all, in the Church there is the divinely instituted power, by which it pertains to some to sanctify, teach and govern, while others are without it. (Vatican Council I. First draft of the Constitution De Ecclesia Christi, Ch. X: De Ecclesiae Potestate – Mansi vol. 51)

  • Condemnation of those who affirm that the Church is a society of equals

If anyone says that the Church was established as a society of equals […] Anathema sit. (Vatican Council I. First draft of the Constitution De Ecclesia Christi, Canon XI – Mansi vol. 51)

…judges Francis’ idea on a horizontal Church

  • Both clergy and faithful are bound by the duty of hierarchical subordination and true obedience

Furthermore We teach and declare that the Roman Church, by the disposition of the Lord, holds the sovereignty of ordinary power over all others, and that this power of jurisdiction on the part of the Roman Pontiff, which is truly Episcopal, is immediate; and with respect to this the pastors and the faithful of whatever rite and dignity, both as separate individuals and all together, are bound by the duty of hierarchical subordination and true obedience, not only in things which pertain to faith and morals, but also in those which pertain to the discipline and government of the Church [which is] spread over the whole world, so that the Church of Christ, protected not only by the Roman Pontiff, but by the unity of communion as well as of the profession of the same faith is one flock under the one highest shepherd. This is the doctrine of Catholic truth from which no one can deviate and keep his faith and salvation. (Denzinger-Hünermann 3060. Vatican Council I, Dogmatic constitution Pastor aeternus, Ch. 3, July 18, 1870)

  • The power of Bishops is asserted, confirmed, and vindicated by the supreme and universal shepherd

This power of the Supreme Pontiff is so far from interfering with that power of ordinary and immediate episcopal jurisdiction by which the bishops, who, ‘placed by the Holy Spirit’ (cf. Act 20,28), have succeeded to the places of the apostles, as true shepherds individually feed and rule the individual flocks assigned to them, that the same (power) is asserted, confirmed, and vindicated by the supreme and universal shepherd, according to the statement of Gregory the Great: ‘My honor is the universal honor of the Church. My honor is the solid vigor of my brothers. Then am I truly honored, when the honor due to each and everyone is not denied.’ (Denzinger-Hünermann 3061. Vatican Council I. Dogmatic constitution, Pastor aeternus, ch. 3, July 18, 1870)

  • Denial of the form of government established by Christ the Lord: those who oppose the true primacy of jurisdiction of Peter

So we teach and declare that according to the testimonies of the Gospel the primacy of jurisdiction over the entire Church of God was promised and was conferred immediately and directly upon the blessed Apostle Peter by Christ the Lord. […] To this teaching of Sacred Scriptures, so manifest as it has been always understood by the Catholic Church, are opposed openly the vicious opinions of those who perversely deny that the form of government in His Church was established by Christ the Lord; that to Peter alone, before the other apostles, whether individually or all together, was confided the true and proper primacy of jurisdiction by Christ; or, of those who affirm that the same primacy was not immediately and directly bestowed upon the blessed Peter himself, but upon the Church, and through this Church upon him as the minister of the Church herself. (Denzinger-Hünermann 3053-3054. Vatican Council I, Session IV, Dogmatic constitution Pastor aeternus, Ch. 1, July 18, 1870)

  • Anathema: whoever diminishes the power of jurisdiction of the Roman Pontiff

If anyone thus speaks, that the Roman Pontiff has only the office of inspection or direction, but not the full and supreme power of jurisdiction over the universal Church, not only in things which pertain to faith and morals, but also in those which pertain to the discipline and government of the Church spread over the whole world; or, that he possesses only the more important parts, but not the whole plenitude of this supreme power; or that this power of his is not ordinary and immediate, or over the churches altogether and individually, and over the pastors and the faithful altogether and individually: let him be anathema. (Denzinger-Hünermann 3064. Vatican Council I, Session IV, Dogmatic constitution Pastor aeternus, Ch. 1, July 18, 1870)

…judges Francis’ ideas present in Laudate Si

  • God, Creator and Lord of heaven and earth

[The one, living, and true God and His distinction from all things.] The holy, Catholic, Apostolic, Roman Church believes and confesses that there is one, true, living God, Creator and Lord of heaven and earth, omnipotent, eternal, immense, incomprehensible, infinite in intellect and will, and in every perfection; who, although He is one, singular, altogether simple and unchangeable spiritual substance, must be proclaimed distinct in reality and essence from the world; most blessed in Himself and of Himself, and ineffably most high above all things which are or can be conceived outside Himself [can. 1-4]. (Denzinger-Hünermann 3001. Vatican Council I – Ecumenical XX, Session III, Dogmatic Constitution Dei Filius concerning the Catholic Faith, April 24, 1870)

…judges Francis’ idea that the Pope should not judge

  • The Roman Pontiff is the supreme judge of the faithful

[Recourse to the Roman Pontiff as the supreme judge] And since the Roman Pontiff is at the head of the universal Church by the divine right of apostolic primacy, We teach and declare also that he is the supreme judge of the faithful [cf. n. 1500 ], and that in all cases pertaining to ecclesiastical examination recourse can be had to his judgment [cf. n. 466 ]; moreover, that the judgment of the Apostolic See, whose authority is not surpassed, is to be disclaimed by no one, nor is anyone permitted to pass judgment on its judgment [cf. n. 330 ff.]. Therefore, they stray from the straight path of truth who affirm that it is permitted to appeal from the judgments of the Roman Pontiffs to an ecumenical Council, as to an authority higher than the Roman Pontiff.

[Canon] If anyone thus speaks, that the Roman Pontiff has only the office of inspection or direction, but not the full and supreme power of jurisdiction over the universal Church, not only in things which pertain to faith and morals, but also in those which pertain to the discipline and government of the Church spread over the whole world; or, that he possesses only the more important parts, but not the whole plenitude of this supreme power; or that this power of his is not ordinary and immediate, or over the churches altogether and individually, and over the pastors and the faithful altogether and individually: let him be anathema. (Denzinger-Hünermann 3063-3064. Vatican Council I, Session IV, Dogmatic Constitution on the Church of Christ, July 18, 1870)

…judges Francis’ idea on God’s omnipotence

  • The act of creation came about by God’s goodness and omnipotent power

[The act of creation in itself, and in opposition to modern errors, and the effect of creation]. This sole true God by His goodness and ‘omnipotent power,’ not to increase His own beatitude, and not to add to, but to manifest His perfection by the blessings which He bestows on creatures, with most free volition, ‘immediately from the beginning of time fashioned each creature out of nothing, spiritual and corporeal, namely angelic and mundane; and then the human creation, common as it were, composed of both spirit and body’ (Lateran Council IV, see n. 428; can. 2 and 5). (Denzinger-Hünermann 3002. Vatican Council I – Ecumenical XX, Session III, Dogmatic Constitution concerning the Catholic Faith, April 25, 1870)

  • God protects and governs all things which He created

But God protects and governs by His providence all things which He created, ‘reaching from end to end mightily and ordering all things sweetly’ (cf. Wis 8:1). For ‘all things are naked and open to His eyes’ (Heb 4: 13), even those which by the free action of creatures are in the future. (Denzinger-Hünermann 3003. Vatican Council I – Ecumenical XX, Session III, Dogmatic Constitution concerning the Catholic Faith, April 25, 1870)

…judges Francis’ idea on the role of non-christian religions

  • Not at all equal: those who adhere to the Catholic truth and those who follow a false religion

For, the most benign God both excites the erring by His grace and aids them so that they can ‘come to a knowledge of the truth’ (1Tim 2:4), and also confirms in His grace those whom ‘He has called out of darkness into his marvelous light’ (1Pet 2:9), so that they may persevere in this same light, not deserting if He be not deserted [see n. 804 ]. Wherefore, not at all equal is the condition of those, who, through the heavenly gift of faith, have adhered to the Catholic truth, and of those, who, led by human opinions, follow a false religion. (Denzinger-Hünermann 3014. Vatican Council I, Session III, Dogmatic Constitutio Dei Filius, April 24, 1870)

…judges Francis’ idea on the multiplication of the loaves

  • God willed that external proofs of His revelation, namely miracles, should be joined to the internal aids of the Holy Spirit

[That faith is consonant with reason ].However, in order that the ‘obedience’ of our faith should be ‘consonant with reason’ (cf. Rom 12:1), God has willed that to the internal aids of the Holy Spirit there should be joined external proofs of His revelation, namely: divine facts, especially miracles and prophecies which, because they clearly show forth the omnipotence and infinite knowledge of God, are most certain signs of a divine revelation, and are suited to the intelligence of all [can. 3 and 4]. Wherefore, not only Moses and the prophets, but especially Christ the Lord Himself, produced many genuine miracles and prophecies; and we read concerning the apostles: ‘But they going forth preached everywhere: the Lord working withal and confirming the word with signs that followed’ (Mk 16:20). (Denzinger-Hünermann 3009. Vatican Council I, Session III, Dogmatic Constitution concerning the Catholic Faith, April 24, 1870)

  • Anathema: for anyone considers the miracles in Sacred Scripture as fables and myths

[The demonstrability of revelation] If anyone shall have said that miracles are not possible, and hence that all accounts of them, even those contained in Sacred Scripture, are to be banished among the fables and myths; or, that miracles can never be known with certitude, and that the divine origin of the Christian religion cannot be correctly proved by them: let him be anathema. (Denzinger-Hünermann 3034. Vatican Council I. Dogmatic Constitution concerning the Catholic Faith, April 24, 1870)

…judges Francis’ idea on the essence of divinity

  • Condemned: the substance of God and of all things is the same thing

[Against pantheism]: If anyone shall say that one and the same thing is the substance or essence of God and of all things: let him be anathema.
[Against special forms of pantheism]: If anyone shall say that finite things, both corporeal and spiritual, or at least the spiritual, have emanated from the divine substance, or, that the divine essence by a manifestation or evolution of itself becomes all things, or, finally, that God is universal or indefinite being, because by determining Himself, He created all things distinct in genera, in species, and in individuals: let him be anathema. (Denzinger-Hünermann 3023-3024. Vatican Council I, Dogmatic Constitution Dei Filius, April 24, 1870)

  • Condemned: God is not distinct from the world

[The one, living, and true God and His distinction from all things] The holy, Catholic, Apostolic, Roman Church believes and confesses that there is one, true, living God, Creator and Lord of heaven and earth, omnipotent, eternal, immense, incomprehensible, infinite in intellect and will, and in every perfection; who, although He is one, singular, altogether simple and unchangeable spiritual substance, must be proclaimed distinct in reality and essence from the world; most blessed in Himself and of Himself, and ineffably most high above all things which are or can be conceived outside Himself [can. 1-4]. (Denzinger-Hünermann 3001. Vatican Council I. Dogmatic Constitution Dei Filius, April 24, 1870)

…judges Francis’ idea on absolute truth

  • There is only one true God, therefore, only one Truth

The holy, Catholic, Apostolic, Roman Church believes and confesses that there is one, true, living God, Creator and Lord of heaven and earth, omnipotent, eternal, immense, incomprehensible, infinite in intellect and will, and in every perfection; who, although He is one, singular, altogether simple and unchangeable spiritual substance, must be proclaimed distinct in reality and essence from the world; most blessed in Himself and of Himself, and ineffably most high above all things which are or can be conceived outside Himself (can. 1-4). (Denzinger-Hünermann 3001: Vatican Council I, Session III, Dogmatic Constitution Dei Filius, April 24, 1870)

…judges Francis’ idea on the teaching of moral issues

  • The Church was commanded to guard the deposit of faith, lest anyone be deceived

Further, the Church which, together with the apostolic duty of teaching, has received the command to guard the deposit of faith, has also, from divine Providence, the right and duty of proscribing ‘knowledge falsely so called’ (1Tim 6:20), ‘lest anyone be cheated by philosophy and vain deceit’ (cf. Col 2:8). (Denzinger-Hünermann 3018. Vatican Council I, Dogmatic Constitution Dei Filius, April 24, 1870)

…judges Francis’ idea that the Church should not be a Point of Reference

  • Inhibiting error avoids schism

The See of St. Peter always remains unimpaired by any error, according to the divine promise of our Lord the Savior made to the chief of His disciples: “I have prayed for thee, that thy faith fail not: and thou, being once converted, confirm thy brethren” (Lk 22,32). So, this gift of truth and a never failing faith was divinely conferred upon Peter and his successors in this chair, that they might administer their high duty for the salvation of all; that the entire flock of Christ, turned away by them from the poisonous food of error, might be nourished on the sustenance of heavenly doctrine, that with the occasion of schism removed the whole Church might be saved as one, and relying on her foundation might stay firm against the gates of hell. (Denzinger-Hünermann, 3070-3071, Vatican Council I. Session IV, On the Church of Christ, Ch. 4, July 18, 1870)

…judges Francis’ idea on Peace

  • The Church Has the Duty to Ban Error So That No One Go Astray

Further, the Church which, together with the apostolic duty of teaching, has received the command to guard the deposit of faith, has also, from divine Providence, the right and duty of proscribing “knowledge falsely so called” (1Tm 6:20), “lest anyone be cheated by philosophy and vain deceit” (cf. Col 2,8).  (Denzinger-Hünermann 3018. Vatican Council I, Dogmatic Constituition Dei Filius, on the Catholic Faith, April 24, 1870)

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