Saint Bernard of Clairvaux…

…judges Francis’ idea on God’s mercy aimed at religious syncretism

  • Prayer for the Jews is not useless…that they be converted!

Does the Church not progress more steadily by convincing the Jews of their errors and converting them to the faith, than if the latter were exterminated suddenly by a general massacre? Do you think the universal prayer of the Church ‘from the rising of the sun to its setting’ for the perfidious Jews – so that the Lord God tear the veil from their hearts and have them go from their darkness to the light of truth – was randomly established? If one believed that the incredulous could not believe, it would be ‘useless and ridiculous to pray for them.’ But with the eyes of mercy, consider that the Lord is compassionate toward them and repays their wickedness with goodness, and their hatred with love. (Saint Bernard of Clairvaux. Letter 365, no. 2)

…judges Francis’ attitude towards public sinners, changing Vatican protocol

  • God only has compassion on those who produce profound cries of penance

The sinner who beseeches God the remission of his sins cannot but hear this opportune response: ‘Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy’ (Mt 5:7). If then you desire that God have compassion on you, have compassion on your soul. Flood your bed every night with tears; and drench your couch with weeping (Ps 6:7). If you have compassion on yourself, if you produce profound cries of penance, you have already made the first step to the plane of mercy, and with all certainty you shall obtain it. Are you are a great, a very great sinner, and do you ‘in need of an uncommon clemency, of a torrent of mercies’, show yourself also of a great mercy; reconcile with yourself, for you were not well with youself ever since you declared yourself against God. (Saint Bernard of Clairvaux. Of conversion: a sermon to the clergy, Ch. XVI, no. 29)

…judges Francis’ idea on conversion of the papacy

  • The sole supreme shepherd of all

Who art thou? Thou art the High Priest and the Sovereign Pontiff. Thou art the Prince of pastors and the Heir of the apostles. By the primacy thou art an Abel; by thy office of pilot (in Peter’s barque), a Noah; by thy patriarchate, an Abraham; by thy orders, a Melchisedech; by they dignity, an Aaron; by thy authority, a Moses; by thy judicial power, a Samuel; by thy jurisdiction, a Peter; and by thy unction, a Christ. Thou art he to whom the keys have been delivered (Mt 16:19) and the sheep entrusted (Jn 21:17). There are indeed other gate-keepers of heaven, and there are other shepherds of the flock; but thou art in both respects more glorious than they in proportion as thou hast ‘inherited a more excellent name’ (Heb 1:4). They have assigned to them particular portions of the flock, his own to each; whereas thou art given charge of all the sheep, as the one Chief Shepherd of the whole flock. Yea, not only of the sheep, but of the other pastors also art thou the sole supreme shepherd. Wouldst thou know how I prove this? I prove it from the words of Christ. ‘If thou lovest Me,’ He said to Peter, ‘feed My sheep’ (Jn 21:17). To which – I do not say of the other bishops, but even of the other apostles, was the entire flock entrusted so absolutely and so indiscriminately? (Saint Bernard of Clairvaux, Treatise on Consideration to Pope Eugene III, Book II, Ch. VIII, pg. 56-57)

…judges Francis’ idea on John the Baptist doubting the Messiah

  • John was filled with the Holy Spirit from his mother’s womb

Truly ardent and vividly lit was he who in such a way anticipated the celestial flame, that he already felt the coming of Christ, even when he was not yet aware of himself. That new fire, that a little while before had descended from Heaven, by the mouth of Gabriel, entering the ear of the Virgin; and then, by the mouth of the Virgin to the ear of John’s mother, entering the child: to fill this his chosen vessel with the Holy Spirit from that moment, and prepare the torch for Christ the Lord. (Saint Bernard of Clairvaux. Sermon for the nativity of Saint John the Baptist, no. 4)

  • John had a humble and fervent devotion to the Lord

Regarding the humble and in all ways fervent devotion of John for the Lord, what shall we say? From this proceeds that he leapt for joy in his mother’s womb; from this, that he was filled with fear at the Jordan when Jesus asked him for baptism; from this, that he not only denied that he was Christ, as they considered him to be, but also claimed himself unworthy to unfasten the straps of his sandals; from this, that as the friend of the Spouse, he rejoiced in the voice of the Spouse; from this, that he had received grace for grace, but that Christ had not received the Spirit with measure, but rather the plenitude, of which all received. […] Now you see how John was enflamed; and at the same time how he also shone hereby, if you have pondered well, it is indicated, for neither could you know his ardor, had he not shone. (Saint Bernard of Clairvaux. Sermon for the nativity of Saint John the Baptist, no. 10)

…judges Francis’ idea on Grace

  • The Doctor Mellifluus publicly commended the work of God’s grace in himself

It happened once that, when I was publicly commending the grace of God towards me in that in any good work I both recognized that I had been prevented and felt that I was being furthered and hoped for full attainment, by its means. (Saint Bernard of Clairvaux. Concerning Grace and free will, Ch. 1)

…judges Francis’ idea on God’s love for sinners

  • The impenitent and obstinate sinner wounds and tears his own soul

Perhaps one becomes perplexed by this word of the Prophet: ‘He who loves iniquity, hates his soul’ (Ps 10:6). But I add: he also hates his own flesh. Does he not treat it with hate, in fact, when every day he accumulates for it the torments of hell, and he accumulates, due to his hardening in evil and the impenitence of his heart, an abundance of wrath for the day of revenge? It is true that we should judge much less from his intention than by the effects [of his deeds] that the sinner is the enemy of his body, just as of his soul. For example, the dissolute who, while drowsing his reason endeavors to do evil to himself, shows himself to be the enemy of his body. Yet is there worse dissolution than impenitence of the heart and obstinacy in sin? It is not just on his body that the miserable raises a violent hand, but his own soul that he wounds and tears. If you have ever seen a man rub his hands together until they start bleeding, you have a clear example of what the sinner does. (Saint Bernard of Clairvaux. Of Conversion: a sermon to the clergy, Ch. IV, no. 5)

  • He who sins with the hope of pardon attracts the malediction of God

There exists an unfaithful confidence, which only attracts a curse: and it is that which a man has when he sins with the hope of pardon. But this should not be called confidence, rather, insensibility and pernicious falsity. For, what confidence could exist in one that does not even have the thought of danger? How will he find a remedy against fear when he does not fear? Hope is a consolation; but the one who applauds himself for having worked evil, and finds joy in vile things does not need consolation. […] Let us examine our ways and our affections, let us weigh with scrupulous attention all the dangers that threaten us. May each one declare full of fear: ‘I will go to the gates of hell; so that we no longer breath anything other than the mercy of God. (Saint Bernard of Clairvaux. Sermon III on the Annunciation of the Virgin)

  • Woe to these children of wrath, who present themselves as ministers of mercy!

The Lord said: ‘Peter, do you love me? Lord, you know that I love you. Tend my sheep’ (Jn 21:15-17). How is it possible to confide such dear sheep to a man who himself did not love? You know that what is asked of the administrators is that, at least, they be of a proven fidelity. Woe to disloyal servants, who intend to reconcile others, when they themselves are nor reconciled, as if they could make men just in any case! Woe to these children of wrath, who present themselves as ministers of mercy. They are rebellious, and they do not fear to usurp the esteem and the renown that corresponds to the peaceful. They are false and liars, who present themselves as faithful mediators of peace and are fattened on the sins of the people. They are wretched, slaves of their base desires; their conduct does not please God, and nonetheless they pretend to want to placate him. (Saint Bernard of Clairvaux. Of Conversion: a sermon to the clergy, Ch. XIX, no. 32)

…judges Francis’ idea that Jesus is only mercy

  • The righteous God cannot allow offenses to His goodness to remain unpunished. Kindness without justice is not a virtue

Is thine eye evil because he is good. This wicked presumption of thine on His benevolence has produced in thee an insolent disregard of His knowledge, and a daring defiance of His power. For this, and nothing less than this, thou unholy one, is thy train of thought. This is the wickedness that thou dost devise on thy bed, and sayest thinkest thou that the Creator will destroy His own work ? I am well aware that no thought of mine escapes God, because He is God, nor does any such thought please Him, because He is good. Nor can I escape His hand if He so wishes because He is mighty. But need this be a cause of dread to me? For if through His goodness He can have no pleasure in evil done by me how much less can He derive it from evil action of His own? I should call it evil on my part to wish to oppose His will and on His part to avenge Himself. He therefore cannot wish to take vengeance for any crime, since He neither will nor can part with His inherent goodness. ‘It is thyself thou wretch, alone that thou deceivest, not God. Thou deceivest thyself, I repeat, and thy wickedness lies to thyself not to God. Thou dost indeed act deceitfully, but He detects thy motive. Thus thou deceivest thyself not God. And since in return for His great goodness, thou dost contemplate great evil towards Him, thy wickedness naturally leads thee to hate Him. For what can be more unjust than that the Creator should be scorned by thee for the very reason for which He most deserves thy love? What can be more outrageous than that when thou hast no doubt that the power of God shown in thy creation, could be used for thy destruction, thou dost yet rely on His abundant kindness, and that this should lead thee to hope that He will be unwilling to exercise His vindictive power ? Wilt thou repay good with evil and love with hatred?’ Now I say that this malice is deserving, not of passing indignation but of abiding wrath. For it is thy desire and hope to be on an equality with the most gracious and most high Lord, although that is not His wish. Thou desirest that He shall have always before His eyes the distressing sight of thine unwelcome presence, and thou thinkest that though He is able to cast thee down, He will not do so, but that He will prefer Himself to suffer than to allow thee to perish. It is undoubtedly in His power to over- throw thee, if such be His will but in thine opinion His kindness will not allow Him to entertain such a wish. If He be such as thou supposest Him to be, it is clear that thy conduct in not loving Him is so much the baser. He does allow action to be taken against Himself rather than take action against thee how great must be thy malice in having no consideration for Him who disregards Himself in sparing thee? But it is inconceivable that He who is perfect can fail to be both kind and just. It is not as though kindness and justice cannot exist together. Kindness is really better when it is just than when it is slack nay more, kindness without justice is not a virtue. It therefore appears that thou remainest ungrateful for the loving-kindness of God whereby thou wast created without exertion on thy part, but thou fearest not His justice of which thou hast had no experience, and dost therefore audaciously incur guilt for which thou dost falsely promise thyself impunity. Now mark that thou wilt find Him whom thou hast known to be kind, to be also righteous, and thou wilt thyself fall into the ditch which thou hast dug for thy Creator. Thy design seems to be to inflict on Him an injury which He is able to avoid if He wishes to do so a wish which thou thinkest that He cannot entertain, as He will not be wanting in that kindness which has led Him never within thine experience to punish anybody. The righteous God will most justly retaliate by punishing thee, since He neither can nor ought to allow such a slight on His goodness to remain unpunished. (Saint Bernard of Clairvaux. The twelve degrees of humility and pride, Part II, Ch. X, pg. 62-64)

…judges Francis’ idea that Koran is a book of peace

  • A child who holds the plenitude of the divinity: here peace exists

Behold peace, not promised but sent, not deferred but conferred, not prophesied but presented. Behold, God the Father has sent to the earth, as it were, a sack filled with his mercy; a sack that must be cut to pieces in the passion so that it can pour out what is concealed in it for our ransom; a small sack, indeed, but stuffed full. A child has been given us, but in him dwells the whole fullness of divinity. When the plenitude of time arrived, the plenitude of divinity came also. (Saint Bernard of Clairvaux. Sermon I on the Epiphany of Our Lord: PL 183, 142 – 143English)

…judges Francis’ idea that sin forms a part of religious life

  • Free choice was given not in order that man sin, but that he might appear more glorious in not sinning

To man alone, amongst living creatures, was it given, on account of his prerogative of free choice, to be able to sin. But it was given to him not in order that he should accordingly sin, but in order that, if he did not sin when he was able to have sinned, he might appear more glorious. For what could have redounded more to his glory, than if it could have said of him, as the Scripture runneth: ‘Who is he, and we will praise him?’ Why is he thus praiseworthy? ‘For wondrous things he did while he lived. What things? ‘Who was able to transgress’, it saith, ‘yet did he not transgress; go do evil yet did he not do evil;’ This honour, then, he preserved so long as he did not sin; when he sinned he lost it. But he sinned, because he was free to sin; nor was he free otherwise than by virtue of freedom of choice, whence it was indeed that he had in him the possibility of sinning. Yet was it not the fault of Him who gave him free choice, but of himself who abused it, in that plainly he converted to the use of sinning the faculty which he received for the glory of not sinning. For although he sinned by means of the power which he received, he did not sin because he possessed the power to do so, but because he willed to do so. […] Man’s fall, when he sinned, is to be ascribed, therefore, not to the gift of the power to sin, but to the fault of the will. (Saint Bernard of Clairvaux. Treatise on Grace and Free Will, Ch. VII, pp. 38-39)

…judges Francis’ idea on human suffering

  • Tribulation for the love of Christ precedes glory together with him

My brothers, glory is hidden for us in tribulation […] Let us hasten to buy this field; this treasure that is hidden in it. Let us make an object of all our joy the misfortunes that befall us. […] ‘I am with him in his tribulation’ says God. And shall I seek anything but tribulation? My joy will be to remain with God. […] It is better for me, Lord, to suffer tribulations if you are with me, than to reign without you, eat splendidly without you, and receive glory without you. It is much better, Lord, for me to embrace You in tribulation, have you with me in the fire, even than to be with You in heaven, because ‘what is there in heaven for me, and what have I desired on earth outside of You? The furnace purifies the gold, and the temptation of tribulation just men.’ (Saint Bernard of Clairvaux. Sermon 17 on the Psalm ‘He who dwells’, p. 430-431 French)

  • The Virgin Most Holy is a true martyr

Truly, o blessed Mother, the sword pierced your soul. Nor could it penetrate the body of your Son without having pierced it. And certainly, after having expired, your Jesus ― he is of everyone without doubt, but especially yours―, the cruel lance which opened his side ―not pardoning even dead, him who it could no longer harm― did not touch his soul, but surely passed through your soul. His soul was no longer there; but yours certainly could not be torn from there. Your soul then was pierced by the force of suffering, so that not without cause we proclaim you to be more than a martyr, since in you the sentiment of compassion was greater than what could be the corporal passion.
By chance for you was not that word, which truly pierced the soul, and which reached unto the division of the soul and the spirit: ‘Woman behold your son?’ O what an exchange! John is given to you in the place of Jesus, the servant in the place of the Lord, the son of Zebedee in the place of the Son of God, a mere man in the place of the true God! How could your most affectionate soul not be pierced on hearing this, when it breaks our hearts – although they be of stone, although they be of iron – just on remembering this? Do not wonder, brethren, that Mary be called a martyr in her soul. […] But perhaps someone will say: ‘Did she perhaps not know beforehand that her Son would die?’ Without a doubt! ‘And did she not hope that he would then rise?’ Yes, and with the greatest confidence! Then, ‘did she grieve to see him crucified?’ Greatly. In other words, who are you, brother, or what is your wisdom, that you are shocked more by Mary com-passionate than by the passion of the Son of Mary? He could die in the body, and could Mary not die with him in her heart? (Saint Bernard of Clairvaux. Sermon on the Sunday within the octave of the Assumption of the Blessed Virgin Mary, no. 14-15)

…judges Francis’ idea on asking prayers from non-catholics and atheists

  • Pray for those buried in sin and the excommunicated? The example of St. John the Apostle

So the twelfth degree [of pride] may be called the habit of sinning, because in it the fear of God is lost, and its place is taken by scorn. To what extent may prayer be offered for the incorrigible, and spiritually dead? For such an one, says John the Apostle, I do not say that any one shall pray. But sayest thou, O Apostle, that no one may Hope? Surely he who loves that man may groan. He ventures not to pray, he need not for-bear to weep. What is this that I say that perchance there remains the resource of hope, where prayer has no place? Take an instance of one who believes and hopes, yet does not pray. Lord, she says, if thou hadst been here, my brother had not died. […] Wilt thou show wonders to the dead ? or shall physicians raise to life and give praise to thee? And concerning him who has been dead. Four days. Shall anyone in the sepulcher declare thy mercy; and thy truth in destruction? Meanwhile it is possible that the Saviour may be pleased to meet us unforeseen and unexpectedly, and moved by the tears, not by tried prayers of the bearers, to restore the dead man to those who live, or actually to recall from among the dead one who is already buried. But I should describe as dead the man who by excusing his sins, has already come down to the eighth degree. For praise perisheth from the dead as from one who does not exist. But after the tenth degree, which is third from the eighth, he is already being carried out into liberty to sin, when he is expelled from the monastic community. But after he has passed the fourth degree he is rightly said to be ‘four days dead’, and when he falls into the fifth degree of habitual sin he is already buried. They should nevertheless realize the great danger which those incur whom the Church […] dares not to mention in her worship. For when on Good Friday prayer is expressly offered for certain wicked persons, no mention is made of those who are excommunicated. (Saint Bernard of Clairvaux. The Twelve degrees of humility and pride, Ch. 21, no. 51-52.55-56)

…judges Francis’ words in his first appearance

  • The Successor of Saint Peter was given charge of all the sheep of the whole flock – not just those of any city or country

Who art thou? Thou art the High Priest and the Sovereign Pontiff. Thou art the Prince of pastors and the Heir of the apostles. By the primacy thou art an Abel; by thy office of pilot (in Peter’s barque), a Noe; by thy patriarchate, an Abraham; by thy orders, a Melchisedech; by they dignity, an Aaron; by thy authority, a Moses; by thy judicial power, a Samuel; by thy jurisdiction, a Peter; and by thy unction, a Christ. Thou art he to whom the keys have been delivered (Mt 16: 19) and the sheep entrusted (Jn 21:17). There are indeed other gate-keepers of heaven, and there are other shepherds of the flock; but thou art in both respects more glorious than they in proportion as thou hast ‘inherited a more excellent name’ (Heb I. 4). They have assigned to them particular portions of the flock, his own to each; whereas thou art given charge of all the sheep, as the one Chief Shepherd of the whole flock. Yea, not only of the sheep, but of the other pastors also art thou the sole supreme shepherd. Wouldst thou know how I prove this? I prove it from the words of Christ. ‘If thou lovest Me,’ He said to Peter, ‘feed My sheep’ (Jn 21:17). To which — I do not say of the other bishops, but even of the other apostles, was the entire flock entrusted so absolutely and so indiscriminately? For to what sheep did the Saviour refer? Was it to the people of this or that city? Of this or that country or kingdom? ‘Feed My sheep’ — these were His words. Who does not see plainly that, instead of designating some portion of the flock, they rather assign the whole? For there can be no exception where there is no distinction. (Saint Bernard of Clairvaux, Treatise on Consideration to Pope Eugene III, Book II, Ch. VIII, pg. 56-57)

…judges Francis’ idea on ‘good vibes

  • It is not jests or fables but the law of God that is to be sought from the mouth of a priest

Amongst laymen frivolous language is only frivolity: but it is blasphemy when it comes from the mouth of a priest. […] Thy lips have been consecrated to the Gospel of Christ. Therefore it is unlawful for thee now to use them for jesting, and a sacrilege to have them thus habitually employed. ‘The lips of the priest,’ says the Prophet, ‘shall keep knowledge, and they shall seek the law at his mouth’ (Mal 2:7). Observe that it is not jests or fables but the law of God that is to be sought from the mouth of a priest. With regard to scurrility, it is not enough to banish that from thy mouth: it must also be banished from thine ear. To allow thyself to laugh at such jokes would be a scandal; but it would be a greater scandal to repeat them for the amusement of others. (Saint Bernard. Treatise on Consideration to Pope Eugene III, Ch. XIII, 68-69)

…judges Francis’ idea on sin and mercy

  • If then you desire that God have compassion on you, have compassion on your soul with profound cries of penance

The sinner who beseeches God the remission of his sins cannot but hear this opportune response: ‘Blessed are the merciful, for they shall obtain mercy’ (Mt 5:7). If then you desire that God have compassion on you, have compassion on your soul. Flood your bed every night with tears; and drench your couch with weeping (Ps 6:7). If you have compassion on yourself, if you produce profound cries of penance, you have already made the first step to the plane of mercy, and with all certainty you shall obtain it. (Saint Bernard of Clarirvaux, Of conversion: a sermon to the clergy, ch. XIV, n.29)

  • He who loves iniquity, hates his own soul

Perhaps one becomes perplexed by this word of the Prophet: ‘He who loves iniquity, hates his soul’ (Ps 10:6). But I add: he also hates his own flesh. Does he not treat it with hate, in fact, when every day he accumulates for it the torments of hell, and he accumulates, due to his hardening in evil and the impenitence of his heart, an abundance of wrath for the day of revenge? It is true that we should judge much less from his intention than by the effects [of his deeds] that the sinner is the enemy of his body, just as of his soul. For example, the dissolute that, while drowsing his reason endeavors to do evil to himself, shows himself to be the enemy of his body. Yet is there worse dissolution than impenitence of the heart and obstinacy in sin? It is not just on his body that the miserable raises a violent hand, but his own soul that he wounds and tears. If you have ever seen a man rub his hands together until they start bleeding, you have a clear example of what the sinner does. (Saint Bernard of Clarirvaux. Of conversion: a sermon to the clergy, Chap. IV, n. 5)

…judges Francis’ idea on the obedience of a Religious

  • To Pope Eugene III – regarding the harm caused by disobedience

It remains for you now to direct your attention to the general state of the whole Church, to see if the  people are submissive to the clergy, with all due  humility, the clergy to the bishops, and the bishops  to God; to see if good order and strict discipline are  maintained in monasteries and other religious establishments; to see if evil deeds and false doctrines are sternly repressed by ecclesiastical censures; to see if  the mystical vines are flourishing by reason of the  virtues and good morals of the priests, and if the flowers are yielding fruit in the obedience of a faithful people; to see if your own Apostolic decrees and the  constitutions of your predecessors are observed with becoming solicitude; to see finally lest there should  be anything growing wild through neglect in the field  of thy Lord, or anything surreptitiously removed there from. Doubt not that something needing correction can still be discovered.[…] But the only real consequence of this legislation is something worthy to be wept with bitterest tears. Do you ask me what that is? It is impunity, the daughter of indifference,   the mother of arrogance, the root of impudence, the nurse of transgression. Blessed art you if with all assiduity you endeavour to guard against this indifference, which is the first parent of all our evils.  (Saint Bernard. Treatise on Consideration to Pope Eugene III, Book 3, ch.5, no. 19French)

…judges Francis’ ideas on the Old Covenant still being valid

  • One should not persecute the Jews – meanwhile, the dead remain in death.

 One should not persecute the Jews, or put them to death, nor even drive them away. Ask those familiar with the Holy Scriptures, what the Psalms prophesize about the Jews, and what the Church says: ‘Slay them not, lest my people forget.’ Indeed, the Jews are a living memorial for us of the Passion of Our Lord. For this motive, they now live scattered throughout the universe; and weeping the just punishment of so great a crime, wherever they be, they bear witness to our redemption. […] However, ‘they shall return at evening, and in His time, He will look upon them with benevolence’ And, finally, when the plenitude of the nations is reunited, then as the Apostle says: ‘Israel shall be saved’ (Rom 11, 26). Till then, he who dies ‘remains in death.’  (Saint Bernard. Letter 363, no. 6 – Obras Completas de San Bernardo, BAC – vol. VII, p. 1047)

  • One should seek the conversion of the Jews, and not their persecution

 Does the Church not progress more steadily by convincing the Jews of their errors and converting them to the faith, than if the latter were exterminated suddenly by a general massacre? Do you think the universal prayer of the Church ‘from the rising of the sun to its setting’ for the perfidious Jews – so that the Lord God tear the veil from their hearts and have them go from their darkness to the light of truth – was randomly established? If one believed that the incredulous could not believe, it would be ‘useless and ridiculous to pray for them.’ But with the eyes of mercy, consider that the Lord is compassionate toward them and repays their wickedness with goodness, and their hatred with love. What then would become the words of the Psalmist: take care ‘with killing them.’ And, elsewhere: ‘When all nations will be entered into the fold, it will be the turn of Israel to be saved.’ Or, another: ‘The Lord will rebuild Jerusalem and gather together the dispersed of Israel’? By chance do you wish to claim that the prophets were liars, and annul all of the treasures of the love and mercy of Jesus Christ? Your ‘doctrine is not yours’, but rather, that ‘of your father’, who ‘sent you’. But I believe you to be satisfied in following your master. ‘He was an assassin since the beginning,’ a liar and the father of lies. What a monstrous belief! What infernal wisdom in opposition to the words of the prophets, in contradiction with the doctrine of the apostles and hostile to mercy and grace! What a shameful heresy!  (Saint Bernard – Letter, 365, no. 2)

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