Code of Canon Law…

 

…judges Francis’ idea on ‘diversified unity’

  • The difference of beliefs, far from creating unity, creates heresy

Heresy is the obstinate denial or obstinate doubt after the reception of baptism of some truth which is to be believed by divine and Catholic faith; apostasy is the total repudiation of the Christian faith; schism is the refusal of submission to the Supreme Pontiff or of communion with the members of the Church subject to him. (Code of Canon Law, Can.751)

…judges Francis’ idea on if doctrine can be interpreted against the infallible Magisterium

  • It belongs to the Church always and everywhere to announce moral principles

The Church, to which Christ the Lord has entrusted the deposit of faith so that with the assistance of the Holy Spirit it might protect the revealed truth reverently, examine it more closely, and proclaim and expound it faithfully, has the duty and innate right, independent of any human power whatsoever, to preach the gospel to all peoples, also using the means of social communication proper to it. It belongs to the Church always and everywhere to announce moral principles, even about the social order, and to render judgment concerning any human affairs insofar as the fundamental rights of the human person or the salvation of souls requires it. (Code of Canon Law, can. 747, § 1–2)

…judges Francis’ idea on the Church’s rules on matrimony being ‘overly rigid’

  • Marriage can only be dissolved by death

A marriage that is ratum et consummatum can be dissolved by no human power and by no cause, except death. (Code of Canon Law, can. 1141)

…judges Francis’ idea that the Orthodox are no longer schismatics

  • Schism is the refusal of submission to the Supreme Pontiff

Heresy is the obstinate denial or obstinate doubt after the reception of baptism of some truth which is to be believed by divine and Catholic faith; apostasy is the total repudiation of the Christian faith; schism is the refusal of submission to the Supreme Pontiff or of communion with the members of the Church subject to him. (Code of Canon Law, Can. 751)

…judges Francis’ idea on conversion of the papacy

  • The College of Bishops, head is, together with its head, the Supreme Pontiff, and never without this head, is also the subject of supreme power – The decrees of an ecumenical council do not have obligatory force unless they have been approved by the Roman Pontiff

Can. 336 The college of bishops, whose head is the Supreme Pontiff and whose members are bishops by virtue of sacramental consecration and hierarchical communion with the head and members of the college and in which the apostolic body continues, together with its head and never without this head, is also the subject of supreme and full power offer the universal Church.
Can. 338 §1. It is for the Roman Pontiff alone to convoke an ecumenical council, preside offer it personally or through others, transfer, suspend, or dissolve a council, and to approve its decrees.
§2. It is for the Roman Pontiff to determine the matters to be treated in a council and establish the order to be observed in a council. To the questions proposed by the Roman Pontiff, the council fathers can add others which are to be approved by the Roman Pontiff.
Can. 341 §1. The decrees of an ecumenical council do not have obligatory force unless they have been approved by the Roman Pontiff together with the council fathers, confirmed by him, and promulgated at his order.
§2. To have obligatory force, decrees which the college of bishops issues when it places a truly collegial action in another way initiated or freely accepted by the Roman Pontiff need the same confirmation and promulgation. (Code of Canon Law, Can. 336)

…judges Francis’ idea on the Church called to dialogue

  • The Church always and everywhere has the duty and innate right to announce moral principles

The Church, to which Christ the Lord has entrusted the deposit of faith so that with the assistance of the Holy Spirit it might protect the revealed truth reverently, examine it more closely, and proclaim and expound it faithfully, has the duty and innate right, independent of any human power whatsoever, to preach the gospel to all peoples, also using the means of social communication proper to it. It belongs to the Church always and everywhere to announce moral principles, even about the social order, and to render judgment concerning any human affairs insofar as the fundamental rights of the human person or the salvation of souls requires it. (Code of Canon Law, Can. §1–2)

…judges Francis’ idea on Ecumenical dialogue

  • The Church – to which Christ the Lord has entrusted the deposit of faith – has the duty and innate right to preach the gospel to all peoples

The Church, to which Christ the Lord has entrusted the deposit of faith so that with the assistance of the Holy Spirit it might protect the revealed truth reverently, examine it more closely, and proclaim and expound it faithfully, has the duty and innate right, independent of any human power whatsoever, to preach the gospel to all peoples, also using the means of social communication proper to it. (Code of Canon Law. Can. 747 §1–2)

…judges Francis’ idea on Catholic Faith and Lutheran belief

  • To receive the sacraments licitly: only Catholics and from Catholic ministers alone

Sacred ministers cannot deny the sacraments to those who seek them at appropriate times, are properly disposed, and are not prohibited by law from receiving them. Pastors of souls and other members of the Christian faithful, according to their respective ecclesiastical function, have the duty to take care that those who seek the sacraments are prepared to receive them by proper evangelization and catechetical instruction, attentive to the norms issued by competent authority. Catholic ministers administer the sacraments licitly to Catholic members of the Christian faithful alone, who likewise receive them licitly from Catholic ministers alone. (Code of Canon Law, Can 843 – 844)

…judges Francis’ idea on God’s love for sinners

  • Those who utter blasphemy are to be punished with a just penalty

A person who in a public show or speech, in published writing, or in other uses of the instruments of social communication utters blasphemy, gravely injures good morals, expresses insults, or excites hatred or contempt against religion or the Church is to be punished with a just penalty. (Code of Canon Law, Can. 1369)

…judges Francis’ idea on proclaiming the Gospel only with gentleness

  • It belongs to the Church always and everywhere to announce moral principles

The Church, to which Christ the Lord has entrusted the deposit of faith so that with the assistance of the Holy Spirit it might protect the revealed truth reverently, examine it more closely, and proclaim and expound it faithfully, has the duty and innate right, independent of any human power whatsoever, to preach the gospel to all peoples, also using the means of social communication proper to it. It belongs to the Church always and everywhere to announce moral principles, even about the social order, and to render judgment concerning any human affairs insofar as the fundamental rights of the human person or the salvation of souls requires it. (Code of Canon Law. Can. 747 §1-2)

…judges Francis’ idea that Jesus is only mercy

  • The priest is a minister of divine justice and mercy

In hearing confessions the priest is to remember that he is equally a judge and a physician and has been established by God as a minister of divine justice and mercy, so that he has regard for the divine honor and the salvation of souls. (Code of Canon Law. Can. 978 §1)

…judges Francis’ idea that sin forms a part of religious life

  • The consecrated life: totally dedicated to God and foretells the heavenly glory

The life consecrated through the profession of the evangelical counsels is a stable form of living by which the faithful, following Christ more closely under the action of the Holy Spirit, are totally dedicated to God who is loved most of all, so that, having been dedicated by a new and special title to His honor, to the building up of the Church, and to the salvation of the world, they strive for the perfection of charity in the service of the kingdom of God and, having been made an outstanding sign in the Church, foretell the heavenly glory. (Code of Canon Law, Can. 573 §1)

…judges Francis’ idea on sects forming part of the Church

  • Heresy, apostasy and schism

Heresy is the obstinate denial or obstinate doubt after the reception of baptism of some truth which is to be believed by divine and Catholic faith; apostasy is the total repudiation of the Christian faith; schism is the refusal of submission to the Supreme Pontiff or of communion with the members of the Church subject to him. (Code of Cannon Law, Can. 751)

…judges Francis’ criteria for the nomination of Bishops

  • A candidate for the episcopacy should be outstanding in solid faith, and truly an expert in sacred scripture, theology, or canon law

In regard to the suitability of a candidate for the episcopacy, it is required that he is:
1. outstanding in solid faith, good morals, piety, zeal for souls, wisdom, prudence, and human virtues,
and endowed with other qualities which make him suitable to fulfill the office in question;
2. of good reputation;
3. at least thirty-five years old;
4. ordained to the presbyterate for at least five years;
5. in possession of a doctorate or at least a licentiate in sacred scripture, theology, or canon law from an institute of higher studies approved by the Apostolic See, or at least truly expert in the same disciplines. (Code of Canon Law, Can. 378 §1)

  • Through episcopal consecration, bishops receive the function of sanctifying, teaching and governing

Bishops, who by divine institution succeed to the place of the Apostles through the Holy Spirit who has been given to them, are constituted pastors in the Church, so that they are teachers of doctrine, priests of sacred worship, and ministers of governance.Through episcopal consecration itself, bishops receive with the function of sanctifying also the functions of teaching and governing; by their nature, however, these can only be exercised in hierarchical communion with the head and members of the college. (Code of Canon Law, no. 375, § 1-2)

…judges Francis’ idea on the indissolubility of marriage

  • Only death can dissolve marriage

A marriage that is ratum et consummatum can be dissolved by no human power and by no cause, except death. (Code of Canon Law, Can. 1141)

  • A marriage entered into by two non-baptized persons is dissolved by means of the Pauline Privilege in favor of the faith

A marriage entered into by two non-baptized persons is dissolved by means of the pauline privilege in favor of the faith of the party who has received baptism by the very fact that a new marriage is contracted by the same party, provided that the non-baptized party departs. (Code of Canon Law, Can. 1143 §1)

…judges Francis’ idea comparing Catechesis with Yoga and Zen

  • It is a grave duty of pastors to take care of catechesis

It is a proper and grave duty especially of pastors of souls to take care of the catechesis of the Christian people so that the living faith of the faithful becomes manifest and active through doctrinal instruction and the experience of Christian life. (Code of Canon Law, Can. 773)

 …judges Francis’ idea on divorcees as Godparents

  • A sponsor assists the baptized person in Christian initiation

Insofar as possible, a person to be baptized is to be given a sponsor who assists an adult in Christian initiation or together with the parents presents an infant for baptism. A sponsor also helps the baptized person to lead a Christian life in keeping with baptism and to fulfill faithfully the obligations inherent in it. (Code of Canon Law, Can. 872)

  • The godparents must lead a life of faith in keeping with the function to be taken on

To be permitted to take on the function of sponsor a person must: […] be a Catholic who has been confirmed and has already received the most holy sacrament of the Eucharist and who leads a life of faith in keeping with the function to be taken on. (Code of Canon Law, Can. 874, §1, 3)

  • Marriage can be dissolved by no human power

A marriage that is ratum et consummatum can be dissolved by no human power and by no cause, except death. (Code of Canon Law, Can. 1141)

…judges Francis’ idea that the Pope should not judge

  • It belongs to the Church to render judgment insofar as the salvation of souls requires

It belongs to the Church always and everywhere to announce moral principles, even about the social order, and to render judgment concerning any human affairs insofar as the fundamental rights of the human person or the salvation of souls requires it. (Code of Canon Law, Can. 747 §2)

…judges Francis’ idea on reducing the precepts of the Church

  • The Code of Canon Law may be modified and reformed, but its higher purpose should not be forgotten

…the salvation of souls […] must always be the supreme law in the Church… (Code of Canon Law, Can. 1752)

 …judges Francis’ idea on knowing God’s will from the people

  • The Church has the duty and innate right to preach the Gospel to all peoples and announce moral principles

The Church, to which Christ the Lord has entrusted the deposit of faith so that with the assistance of the Holy Spirit it might protect the revealed truth reverently, examine it more closely, and proclaim and expound it faithfully, has the duty and innate right, independent of any human power whatsoever, to preach the gospel to all peoples, also using the means of social communication proper to it. It belongs to the Church always and everywhere to announce moral principles, even about the social order, and to render judgment concerning any human affairs insofar as the fundamental rights of the human person or the salvation of souls requires it. (Code of Canon Law, Can. 747 §1 and §2)

…judges the act of seeking blessings from heretics and schismatics

  • An excommunicated person is forbidden to celebrate sacramentals

An apostate from the faith, a heretic, or a schismatic incurs a latae sententiae excommunication; […] An excommunicated person is forbidden: 1/ to have any ministerial participation in celebrating the sacrifice of the Eucharist or any other ceremonies of worship whatsoever; 2/ to celebrate the sacraments or sacramentals and to receive the sacraments; 3/ to exercise any ecclesiastical offices, ministries, or functions whatsoever or to place acts of governance. (Code of Canon Law, can. 1364 §1; can. 1331 §1)

…judges Francis’ relations with  ‘ordained’ women of the christian churches

  • Sacred ordination is only valid for baptized males

A baptized male alone receives sacred ordination validly. (Code of Canon Law, can. 1024)

…judges Francis’ idea on the Pope

  • The Pope holds supreme, full, immediate and universal power

The Bishop of the Roman Church, in whom continues the office given by the Lord uniquely to Peter, the first of the Apostles, and to be transmitted to his successors, is the head of the college of bishops, the Vicar of Christ, and the pastor of the universal Church on earth. By virtue of his office he possesses supreme, full, immediate, and universal ordinary power in the Church, which he is always able to exercise freely. (Code of Canon Law, Can. 33

…judges Francis’ idea on the access to the sacraments

  • Only the baptized may receive the Sacraments

A person who has not received baptism cannot be admitted validly to the other sacraments. (Code of Canon Law, 842 §1)

  • In order to receive the Sacraments one must be suitably prepared

Pastors of souls and other members of the Christian faithful, according to their respective ecclesiastical function, have the duty to take care that those who seek the sacraments are prepared to receive them by proper evangelization and catechetical instruction, attentive to the norms issued by competent authority. (Code of Canon Law 843 §2)

  •  The Sacraments may only be administered to Catholics

Catholic ministers administer the sacraments licitly to Catholic members of the Christian faithful alone, who likewise receive them licitly from Catholic ministers alone, without prejudice to the prescripts of §§2, 3, and 4 of this canon, and can. 861, §2. (Code of Canon Law 844 §1)

…judges Francis’ idea on whether the Lord always Pardons

  • It is a remedy that requires conversion

 To receive the salvific remedy of the sacrament of penance, a member of the Christian faithful must be disposed in such a way that, rejecting sins committed and having a purpose of amendment, the person is turned back to God. (Code of Canon Law, n.987)

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