25 – The Lord always pardons, He never condemns

‘A second plank [of salvation] after the shipwreck of lost grace.’ Since the first centuries of Christianity, the sacrament of Penance has been described in this manner (cf. Dz 1542). A vivid and eloquent image, indeed, for when a soul loses its baptismal innocence by committing a serious transgression, it falls like a person drowning into the murky waves of sin. In order not to suffer eternal perdition and to recover the lost treasure of grace, one must have recourse to Confession, the secure plank of salvation for the baptized who do not wish to perish. However, this divine remedy comes with certain conditions. Does God always pardon? Does He pardon even those who do not wish to escape from the seas of sin? Such an important topic requires a profound analysis.

Francis

Quote A

When we go to confession, the Lord tells us: “I forgive you. But now come with me”. And He helps us to get back on the path. He never condemns. He never simply forgives, but He forgives and accompanies. Then we are fragile and we have to return to confession, everyone. But He never tires. He always takes us by the hand again. This is the love of God, and we must imitate it! Society must imitate it. Take this path. On the other hand, a true and complete reintegration of the person does not come about as the end of an exclusively human journey. This path also involves an encounter with God, the ability to allow ourselves to be looked at by God, who loves us. It is more difficult to allow God to look at us than to look at God. It is more difficult to allow God to encounter us than to encounter God, because we always resist. He waits for us, He looks at us, He always seeks us. This God who loves us, who is capable of understanding us and forgiving our mistakes. The Lord is a master at reintegrating people. He takes us by the hand and brings us back to society and the community. The Lord always forgives, always accompanies and always understands; it is up to us to allow ourselves to be understood, to be forgiven and to be accompanied.  (Speech, Pastoral visit to Cassano all’Ionio, visit with the detainees, the penitentiary staff and their families, June 21, 2014).

Teachings of the Magisterium

Table of contents

I – Confidence in God’s goodness does not mean the abuse of His mercy

Sacred Scripture

  • Jesus warns the paralytic in the pool of Bethzatha
  • Those who do not convert will be chastised
  • The way that leads to destruction is easy

John Paul II

  • Meekness and severe threats are in harmony within the Gospel
  • Catholics have the obligation to make all efforts not to sin

John XXIII

  •  Serious sins attract the chastisements of God

Benedict XVI

  • The certainty of God’s pardon is not an excuse to fail to seek sanctity
  • Priests should educate the faithful about the radical requirements of the Gospel

The Catechism of Trent

  • Whoever abuses mercy becomes unworthy to receive it

Saint Augustine

  • Pardon is granted for correction, not to favor iniquity
  • False hope leads to perdition

Saint John Chrysostom

  • A Christian goes to heaven not merely as a traveler, but rather as a soldier

II – The Sacrament of Penance requires good dispositions

Sacred Scriptures

  • At times, God does not pardon

Paul VI

  • The sacraments may not be received in a passive or indifferent manner

Catechism of the Catholic Church

  • The Sacrament which makes the evangelical call to conversion present

Saint Thomas Aquinas

  • Penance requires contrition, confession and satisfaction

Council of Trent

  • Contrition unites sorrow of the soul, detestation of sin and purpose of amendment

John Paul II

  • The first step of returning to God is contrition
  •   A sacrament that implies a battle against sin

Code of Canon Law

  • It is a remedy that requires conversion

Catechism of Trent

  • The request for mercy without contrition is useless

Benedict XVI

  • He who repents, receives pardon and the strength to sin no more
  • Confession is not only an instrument of pardon, but also of sanctification

Catechism of the Catholic Church

  • After pardon, the necessity to expiate the sin follows

Council of Trent

  • Satisfaction is a check for sin and a stimulus for a new life

 

I – Confidence in God’s goodness does not mean the abuse of His mercy

Sacred Scripture

  • Jesus warns the paralytic in the pool of Bethzatha

One man was there, who had been ill for thirty-eight years. Jesus said to him, “Rise, take up your pallet, and walk.” And at once the man was healed, and he took up his pallet and walked. Afterward, Jesus found him in the temple, and said to him, “See, you are well! Sin no more, that nothing worse befall you”  (Jn 5:5,8-9,14).

  • Those who do not convert will be chastised

 There were some present at that very time who told him of the Galileans whose blood Pilate had mingled with their sacrifices. And he answered them, “Do you think that these Galileans were worse sinners than all the other Galileans, because they suffered thus? I tell you, No; but unless you repent you will all likewise perish. Or those eighteen upon whom the tower in Siloam fell and killed them, do you think that they were worse offenders than all the others who dwelt in Jerusalem? I tell you, No; but unless you repent you will all likewise perish”  (Lk 13:1-5).

  • The way that leads to destruction is easy

“Enter by the narrow gate; for the gate is wide and the way is easy, that leads to destruction, and those who enter by it are many. For the gate is narrow and the way is hard, that leads to life, and those who find it are few”(Mt 7:13-14).

John Paul II

  • Meekness and severe threats are in harmony within the Gospel

In this way, the Gospel of meekness and humility is in cadence with the Gospel of exigent morality and even of severe threats to those who do not wish to convert. There is no contradiction between one and the other. Jesus lives from the truth he announces and from the love that he reveals, and this love is demanding just as is the truth from which it is derived. (John Paul II. General Audience, June 8, 1988)

  • Catholics have the obligation to make all efforts not to sin

 In effect, a spiritual renovation cannot take place without passing through penitential conversion, both as a permanent and interior attitude of the believer and as an exercise of the virtue which corresponds to the invitation of the Apostle to “be reconciled to God” (2 Cor 5:20), as well as through access to the pardon of God through the Sacrament of Penance. It is effectively a requirement of this same ecclesial condition that no Catholic omit that which is necessary in order to maintain oneself in the life of grace, and to do all possible in order not to fall into sin (which would separate one from it), and in this way be continually prepared to partake of the Body and Blood of the Lord, and thus be of service to all the Church by one’s own personal sanctification, and by the increasing commitment to the service of the Lord.  (John Paul II. Aperite portas Redemptori, n.4. Bull of the Convocation of the Jubilee for the 1950th anniversary of the Redemption, January 6, 1983)

John XXIII

  • Serious sins attract the chastisements of God

He who is already a member of Christ must learn of necessity to keep a rein upon himself. Only so will he be able to drive away the enemy of his soul and keep his baptismal innocence unsullied, or regain God’s grace when it is lost by sin. To become a member of Holy Church by baptism is to be clothed in the beauty with which Christ adorns His beloved Bride. “Christ loved the Church and delivered Himself up for her; that he might sanctify her, cleansing her in the bath of water by means of the word of life; in order that he might present to himself the Church in all her glory, not having spot or wrinkle or any such thing; but that she might be holy and without blemish.” (Eph 5:26-27). This being so, well may those sinners who have stained the white robe of their sacred baptism fear the just punishments of God. Their remedy is “to wash their robes in the blood of the Lamb” (Apoc 7: 14)—to restore themselves to their former splendor in the sacrament of Penance—and to school themselves in the practice of Christian virtue.  (John XXIII. Encylical Paenitentiam Agere, On the Need for the Practice of Interior and Exterior Penance, July1, 1962) 

Benedict XVI

  • The certainty of God’s pardon is not an excuse to fail to seek sanctity

 Even when we have to struggle continually with the same failings, it is important to resist the coarsening of our souls and the indifference which would simply accept that this is the way we are. It is important to keep pressing forward, without scrupulosity, in the grateful awareness that God forgives us ever anew – yet also without the indifference that might lead us to abandon altogether the struggle for holiness and self-improvement. (Benedict XVI. Letter to Seminarians, n.3, October 18, 2010)

  • Priests should educate the faithful about the radical requirements of the Gospel

The discussed “crisis” of the Sacrament of Penance, frequently calls into question priests first of all and their great responsibility to teach the People of God the radical requirements of the Gospel. In particular, it asks them to dedicate themselves generously to hearing sacramental confessions; to guide the flock courageously so that it does not conform to the mindset of this world (cf. Rom 12:2) but may even be able to make decisions that run counter to the tide, avoiding adjustments and compromises. (Benedict XVI. Speech to Participants in the Internal Forum Course Organized by the Apostolic Penitentiary, March 11, 2010)

The Catechism of Trent

  • Whoever abuses mercy becomes unworthy to receive it

 But here the faithful are to be admonished to guard against the danger of becoming more prone to sin, or slow to repentance, from a presumption that they can have recourse to this power of forgiving sins which is so complete and, as we saw, unrestricted as to time. For, as such a propensity to sin would manifestly convict them of acting injuriously and contumaciously to this divine power, and would therefore render them unworthy of the divine mercy; so this slowness to repentance gives great reason to fear that, overtaken by death, they may in vain confess their belief in the remission of sins, which by their tardiness and procrastination they deservedly forfeited. (The Catechism of Trent, n.1100)

Saint Augustine

  • Pardon is granted for correction, not to favor iniquity

So therefore, brethren, we have a season of mercy, let us not on that account flatter or indulge ourselves saying, “God spareth ever. Behold what I did yesterday God spared; I do so today also, and God spareth; I will do so tomorrow also because God spareth.” Thou heedest His mercy, but fearest not his judgment. If thou wish to sing of mercy and judgement, understand that He spareth that thou mayest amend, not that thou mayest remain in thy wickedness. (Saint Augustine. Exposition on Psalm 100 (101), n.3)

  • False hope leads to perdition

Who is deceived by hoping? He who says, God is good, God is merciful, let me do what I please, what I like; let me give loose reins to my lusts, let me gratify the desires of my soul. Why this? Because God is merciful, God is good, God is kind. These men are in danger by hope. (Saint Augustine. Homilies on the Gospel of John, XXXIII, 8) 

Saint John Chrysostom

  • A Christian goes to heaven not merely as a traveler, but rather as a soldier

For as Paul warns you: “Stand therefore, having fastened the belt of truth around your waist, and having put on the breastplate of righteousness, and having shod your feet with the equipment of the gospel of peace.” (Eph 6:14-15) There is mention of being shod, also of a staff and breastplate. Moses speaks to those who prepare to commence a journey, and Paul gives orders to those who prepare themselves to begin a battle. The former left one land to travel to another, and so are called travelers, but I am going from earth to heaven, and that is why I am a soldier. Why? Because my path through the air is infested with thieves, and demons come out along the way. For this reason, I bear confidence as an unsheathed sword; and for this reason I wear the breastplate of justice; for this reason I gird myself with truth. For I am not merely a traveler, but also a soldier. “For the gate is narrow and the way is hard that leads to life! (Mt 7:14)” (Saint John Chrysostom. II Homily on Abraham)

 

II – The Sacrament of Penance requires good dispositions

Sacred Scriptures

  • At times, God does not pardon

And when he had said this, he breathed on them, and said to them, “Receive the Holy Spirit. If you forgive the sins of any, they are forgiven; if you retain the sins of any, they are retained.” (Jn 20:22-23)

Paul VI

  • The sacraments may not be received in a passive or indifferent manner

The role of evangelization is precisely to educate people in the faith in such a way as to lead each individual Christian to live the sacraments as true sacraments of faith–and not to receive them passively or reluctantly. (Paul VI. Apostolic Exhortation Evangelii Nuntiandi, December 8, 1975)

Catechism of the Catholic Church

  • The Sacrament which makes the evangelical call to conversion present

It is called the sacrament of conversion because it makes sacramentally present Jesus’ call to conversion, the first step in returning to the Father from whom one has strayed by sin.
It is called the sacrament of Penance, since it consecrates the Christian sinner’s personal and ecclesial steps of conversion, penance, and satisfaction. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, n. 1423)

Saint Thomas Aquinas

  • Penance requires contrition, confession and satisfaction.

Whereas, in Penance, the offense is atoned according to the will of the sinner, and the judgment of God against Whom the sin was committed, because in the latter case we seek not only the restoration of the equality of justice, as in vindictive justice, but also and still more the reconciliation of friendship, which is accomplished by the offender making atonement according to the will of the person offended. Accordingly the first requisite on the part of the penitent is the will to atone, and this is done by contrition; the second is that he submit to the judgment of the priest standing in God’s place, and this is done in confession; and the third is that he atone according to the decision of God’s minister, and this is done in satisfaction. (Saint Thomas Aquinas. Summa Theologica III, q.90, a.2, resp.) 

Council of Trent

  • Contrition unites sorrow of the soul, detestation of sin and purpose of amendment

Contrition, which has the first place among the aforementioned acts of the penitent, is a sorrow of the soul and a detestation of sin committed, with a determination of not sinning in the future. This feeling of contrition is, moreover, necessary at all times to obtain the forgiveness of sins, and thus for a person who has fallen after baptism it especially prepares for the remission of sins, if it is united with trust in divine mercy and with the desire of performing the other things required to receive this sacrament correctly. (Denzinger-Hünermann 1676. Council of Trent, section XIV. November 25, 1551. Doctrine about the Sacrament of Penance. Chap. 4: Contrition)

John Paul II

  • The first step of returning to God is contrition

Understood in this way, contrition is therefore the beginning and the heart of conversion, of that evangelical metanoia which brings the person back to God like the prodigal son returning to his father, and which has in the sacrament of penance its visible sign and which perfects attrition. Hence “upon this contrition of heart depends the truth of penance. (John Paul II. Apostolic Exhortation Reconciliatio et Penitencia, n.31, December 2, 1984) 

  •   A sacrament that implies a battle against sin

As such, this sacrament was instituted for the pardon of sins committed after baptism, and within it the baptized play an active role. They are not limited to receiving a ritual and formal pardon, as passive participants. On the contrary, with the help of grace, they take the initiative to battle against sin, confessing their sins and asking pardon for them. The baptized know that this sacrament implies on their part, an act of conversion. (John Paul II. General Audience, n.1, April 15, 1992)

Code of Canon Law

  • It is a remedy that requires conversion

 To receive the salvific remedy of the sacrament of penance, a member of the Christian faithful must be disposed in such a way that, rejecting sins committed and having a purpose of amendment, the person is turned back to God. (Code of Canon Law, n.987)

Catechism of Trent

  • The request for mercy without contrition is useless

When we read in Scripture that certain persons did not obtain pardon from God, even though they earnestly implored it, we know that this was due to the fact that they had not a true and heartfelt sorrow for their sins. (Catechism of Trent, n.2400)

Benedict XVI

  • He who repents, receives pardon and the strength to sin no more

Jesus sent the adulterous woman away with this recommendation: ‘Go, and do not sin again’. He forgives her so that ‘from now on’ she will sin no more. In a similar episode, that of the repentant woman, a former sinner whom we come across in Luke’s Gospel (cf. Lk 7:36-50), he welcomed a woman who had repented and sent her peacefully on her way. Here, instead, the adulterous woman simply receives an unconditional pardon. In both cases – for the repentant woman sinner and for the adulterous woman – the message is the same. In one case it is stressed that there is no forgiveness without the desire for forgiveness, without opening the heart to forgiveness; here it is highlighted that only divine forgiveness and divine love received with an open and sincere heart give us the strength to resist evil and ‘to sin no more’, to let ourselves be struck by God’s love so that it becomes our strength. (Benedict XVI. Homily, visit to the Roman Parish of St. Felicity and her children, Martyrs, Sunday, 25 March 2007)

  • Confession is not only an instrument of pardon, but also of sanctification

Then there is a close connection between holiness and the Sacrament of Reconciliation, witnessed by all the saints of history. The real conversion of our hearts, which means opening ourselves to God’s transforming and renewing action, is the “driving force” of every reform and is expressed in a real evangelizing effort. In confession, through the freely bestowed action of divine Mercy, repentant sinners are justified, pardoned and sanctified and abandon their former selves to be reclothed in the new.(Benedict XVI. To participants in a course organized by the Apostolic Penitentiary, 9 March 2012)

Catechism of the Catholic Church

  • After pardon, the necessity to expiate the sin follows

 Raised up from sin, the sinner must still recover his full spiritual health by doing something more to make amends for the sin: he must “make satisfaction for” or “expiate” his sins. This satisfaction is also called “penance”. (Catechism of the Catholic Church, n. 1459) 

Council of Trent

  • Satisfaction is a check for sin and a stimulus for a new life

For, without doubt, these satisfactions greatly restrain from sin, and as by a kind of rein act as a check, and make penitents more cautious and vigilant in the future; they also remove the remnants of sin, and destroy vicious habits acquired by living evilly through acts contrary to virtue. Neither was there ever in the Church of God any way considered more secure for warding off impending punishment by the Lord than that men perform these works of penance. (Denzinger-Hünermann 1690. Council of Trent, session XIV, November 25, 1551. Doctrine on the Sacrament of Penance, chap. 8. The Necessity and Fruit of Satisfaction)


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